What is cognitive engagement? It is mental involvement in the learning activity. From EdHUB: “Cognitive engagement is different from behavioral engagement, which is cooperative participation, or adhering to classroom rules. Cognitive engagement is a key goal of many school reform efforts because it predicts achievement.” In the classroom, teachers encourage deep thinking, use strategies (K-W-L Charts, organizers, share-out, shoulder partners), assess understanding often, and build activities for all depths of knowledge levels.
What is affective engagement? It is autonomy - participation by choice. From EdHUB: “foster autonomy by deemphasizing external reinforcement, encouraging students to solve problems in their own way, acknowledging students’ feelings, and listening more than talking... teachers who use directive, commanding statements and use coercive techniques, such as rewards and punishments, diminish feelings of autonomy. Teachers also increase motivation by using interesting materials and making instruction relevant to students’ lives . . .” In the classroom, teachers use research-based strategies, give specific & immediate feedback, emphasize intrinsic motivators more than rewards.
Students are motivated and engaged by a lot of things – I don't think worksheets are one of them. I've challenged teachers this year to spend some time reflecting on their practices and to stop using just one worksheet and replace it with a new, engaging assessment. If everyone does this, there will be about 170 less worksheet type assignments circulating.